Lockheed Hudson Taking Off From Gibraltar (click to enlarge)
Brigadier William Torr, the military attaché at the British Embassy in Madrid, said that the total number of Allied military personnel returned to Allied control from Spain during WWII was 30,951. It probably would be safe to say that most passed through Gibraltar.
By Julian Robinson, MailOnline, April 6, 2017, appearing in the Daily Mail, July 10, 2022:
“Inside the secret labyrinth of WW2 tunnels known as the Great North Road dug a mile under the Rock of Gibraltar to protect the Allies with ‘streets’ named after English towns so British troops could find their way around
- Tunnels were built deep into Rock of Gibraltar in 1940 to protect British troops from German bombing raids
- Passages leading off main tunnel were named after English towns and districts to help troops get around
- Gibraltar was strategically important during war because it allowed UK to control access to Mediterranean
- Complex had everything 16,000 soldiers needed to survive for 16 months, including hospital and food stores”
Books about Gibraltar in WWII (for websites about Gibraltar, see below):
- 1. Andrews, Allen, Proud Fortress, The Fighting Story of Gibraltar, New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1959
- 2. Benady, Tito, The Royal Navy at Gibraltar, Gibraltar: Gibraltar Book Ltd., 2000.
- 3. Benady, Tito, The Royal Navy at Gibraltar Since 1900, Liskeard, Cornwall: Maritime Books, 2004. (This is all photos with captions. The other by Benady is primarily text.)
- 4. Borghese, J. Valerio, Sea Devils, Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, 1954. (About Italian attacks on shipping at Gibraltar.)
- 5. Bristow, Desmond, A Game of Moles, The Deceptions of an MI6 Officer, London: Little, Brown and Co. (UK), 1993.
- 6. Finlayson, T.J., The Fortress Came First, Glendon, Northants: Gibraltar Books, Ltd., 1991.
- 7. Finlayson, T.J., Guided Tour of Gibraltar, Gibraltar: Estoril Ltd., n.d.
- 8. Jackson, William G.F., The Rock of the Gibraltarians, Gibraltar: Gibraltar Books Ltd., 2001.
- 9. McLachlan, Donald, Room 39, a Study in Naval Intelligence, New York: Atheneum, 1967. (On British Naval Intelligence.)
- 10. Porch, Douglas, The Path to Victory, the Mediterranean Theatre in World War II, New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 2004.
- 11. Pugh, Marshall, Frogman, Commander Crabb’s Story, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1956.
- 12. Ramsey, Winston G., The War in Gibraltar, London: Battle of Britain Prints, 1978.
- 13. Schofield, William and Carisella, P.J., Frogmen First Battles, Boston: Branden Books, 2005.
Website Links About Gibraltar in WWII:
- Evaders and Oranges, the Seville Escape Route (on this website at https://airforceescape.org/evaders-and-oranges-the-seville-escape-route/)
- The Gibraltar Evacuees, by Joe Gingell – https://www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofBritain/The-Gibraltar-Evacuees/
- Military History of Gibraltar During WWII – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_history_of_Gibraltar_during_World_War_II
- YouTube Military History of Gibraltar During WWII – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b9ouHVOT9vA
- YouTube Buried Alive: The Secret WWII Bunker Hidden Inside Gibraltar’s Rock – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2n97nh9PKH4
- Evacuation of the Gibraltarian civilian population during World War II (Wikipedia) – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evacuation_of_the_Gibraltarian_civilian_population_during_World_War_II
- The Battle for Gibraltar – https://www.mi5.gov.uk/the-battle-for-gibraltar